Somalia (/səˈmɑːliə/ sə-MAH-lee-ə; Somali: Soomaaliya; Arabic: الصومال, romanized: aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of Somalia (Somali: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalka Soomaaliya; Arabic: جمهورية الصومال الاتحادية, romanized: Jumhūrīyat aṣ-Ṣūmāl al-Itihadiya) is a sovereign country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the west, the Gulf of Aden to the north, the Guardafui Channel and Somali Sea to the east, and Kenya to the southwest.
Somalia has the longest coastline on Africa's mainland, and its terrain consists mainly of plateaus, plains, and highlands. Climatically, hot conditions prevail year-round, with periodic monsoon winds and irregular rainfall.
Somalia has an estimated population of around 15 million and has been described as the most culturally homogeneous country in Africa. Around 85% of its residents are ethnic Somalis, who have historically inhabited the northern part of the country. Ethnic minorities are largely concentrated in the southern regions. The official languages of Somalia are Somali and Arabic.